Keycloak: Reducing Complexity in Authentication and Authorization

Keycloak: Reducing Complexity in Authentication and Authorization

Authentication and authorization (AuthZ) processes are essential for any modern application. However, managing them from scratch can be challenging. They are notorious for bottlenecking development workflows and being vulnerable to security breaches.

An easy fix for these issues is using an open-source Identity and Access Management solution like Keycloak. This tool simplifies AuthZ and significantly reduces development time. Its pre-built functions and robust security features allow you to focus on building unique features that keep your users engaged.

Interested to learn more? This article will explore how this IAM solution simplifies user management, reduces development complexity, and enables you to build secure and sustainable applications. Let’s dive in.

Understanding the Challenges of AuthZ in Modern Applications

Here’s how AuthZ may become complex:

  • Security Vulnerabilities: Homegrown authentication systems are prone to errors and security vulnerabilities. A single misstep could expose your clients’ data.
  • Repetitive Code: Implementing login screens, password resets, and permission checks in every application can lead to much copy-paste coding. This is inefficient and makes maintenance challenging.
  • Scalability Issues: As your user base grows, managing logins and permissions becomes increasingly tricky. A homegrown system might buckle under the pressure.
    Integration Headaches: Integrating different authentication providers (social logins, SSO) can be complex, requiring additional coding and configuration.

How Keycloak Simplifies Identity Management and Reduces Development Time

Here’s how this IAM solution simplifies identity management and slashes your development time:

Out-of-the-Box Functionality: Keycloak provides key functionalities that reduce the resources spent coding repetitive tasks. like login screens, password resets, and permission checks.

Single Sign-On (SSO): With the SSO feature, users can access multiple applications with one login. This ensures a smoother user experience and improved security.

Fine-Grained Access Control: You can define fine-grained access control policies based on user roles or attributes with Keycloak. Suppose we have a content management system (CMS) with editors and administrators. This solution allows you to define these roles like “Editor” and “Administrator” and assign specific permissions. This ensures a secure and well-organized content management workflow.

Integration with Existing Databases and External Identity Providers

Let’s see how Keycloak seamlessly integrates with existing systems and external identity providers, further streamlining your development process.

Existing Databases

Keycloak can integrate with an existing database using a custom User Federation SPI (Service Provider Interface). This lets you leverage your existing data while enjoying the authentication and authorization functionalities.

External Identity Providers

Keycloak integrates with popular external identity providers like Google, Facebook, and GitHub to simplify login processes. This lets users log in to your application using their social media or developer account details.

Benefits of Using Keycloak for Internal and External User Management

This Identity and Access Management solution streamlines user management and frees you to focus on building unique features. Here’s how:

Improved Security: Keycloak promotes industry-standard security practices to reduce the risk of unauthorized access to user data.

Reduced Development Time: This IAM solution eliminates the time-consuming task of building and maintaining custom solutions. Your development team can then focus on building core functionalities.

Sustainable Development: Keycloak’s centralized user management promotes a sustainable development approach. This allows your application to adapt and grow with your client base.

Practical Guide to Installing Keycloak on an Ubuntu Server

Now, let’s see a step-by-step guide to get you started on Ubuntu. This will equip you to experience its efficiency firsthand.

1. Prerequisites: First, ensure your Ubuntu server meets the website’s minimum requirements. You’ll also need root access or a user with sudo privileges.

2. Update and Install Dependencies: Run the following commands in your terminal to update your system:

sudo apt update
sudo apt install openjdk-17-jre unzip -y

3. Download Keycloak: Visit the download page and get the latest version. You can use wget to download it directly to your server:

sudo wget

4. Extract the Archive: Unzip the downloaded file:

sudo unzip

5. Create a Systemd Service: This ensures it automatically starts with your server:

  • Create a new service file: sudo nano /etc/systemd/system/keycloak.service
  • Paste the following content, replacing <path_to_keycloak> with the actual path where you extracted it (e.g., /opt/keycloak):

Description=Keycloak Server

ExecStart=<path_to_keycloak>/bin/ -Djboss.root.logging.level=INFO


  • Save the file and exit the editor (Ctrl+O, then Ctrl+X).

6. Set Ownership: Ensure the Keycloak directory and its contents are owned by the user:

sudo chown -R keycloak:keycloak /opt/keycloak

7. Reload Systemd and Start Keycloak: Let systemd know about the new service and start Keycloak:

sudo systemctl daemon-reload
sudo systemctl start keycloak

8. Verify Installation: Open your web browser and navigate to http://localhost:8080/auth (or replace localhost with your server’s IP address). You should see the Keycloak administration console login screen. The default credentials are username admin and password admin.

Congratulations! You’ve successfully installed the IAM solution on your Ubuntu server. Now, you can explore its functionalities, configure authentication flows, and integrate it with your development projects.

Note: The default installation is for development purposes. Refer to the Keycloak documentation for recommended security hardening steps for production environments.

Configuration And Best Practices For User Management, Social Login, And Identity Brokering

Let’s explore configuration best practices to optimize this IAM solution. Here are some key areas to focus on:

  • For User Management:
    • Centralized User Directory: Keycloak is a central hub for client data. Define user attributes relevant to your application (e.g., name, email, role). Encourage strong password policies for better security.
    • Leveraging User Federation: Do you have existing user data stored elsewhere (e.g., LDAP directory)? Keycloak’s User Federation SPI allows you to integrate with your existing system. That ensures an efficient user experience without having to migrate data.
  • For Social Login:
    • Streamlined User Onboarding: Simplify user registration by enabling social logins with popular platforms like Google, Facebook, or GitHub. However, consider requiring users to set a password within your application even if they register using a social login.
  • For Identity Brokering:
    • Consolidated Login Experience: Does your application ecosystem involve multiple applications requiring separate logins? Keycloak can act as an identity broker to allow users to log in once and access all authorized applications. This improves user experience and simplifies login workflows.
    • Configuring Identity Providers: Like social logins, Keycloak allows you to configure external identity providers (IdPs) for identity brokering. Define the specific IdP you want to connect with and configure the authentication flow for users from that IdP.
    • Standardized Protocols: Keycloak supports industry-standard protocols like SAML and OpenID Connect for identity brokering. This ensures interoperability with various IdPs, offering flexibility in your identity management strategy.

Future Trends in Identity and Access Management and Keycloak’s Role



Here are some key trends to watch with this IAM solution:

  • The Rise of Decentralized Identity (DID): Think of a future where users control their identities, independent of any central authority. DID would allow them to decide what data to share with different applications.
  • Enhanced Security with Biometrics: Keycloak’s extensible architecture allows for integration with biometric authentication solutions, like fingerprint or facial recognition. This offers a more secure and convenient login experience.
  • Machine Learning for Adaptive Security: While it doesn’t offer built-in ML functionalities yet, its open-source nature allows future integrations with ML-powered security tools. Machine learning analyzes customer behavior and detects anomalies for more sophisticated and adaptive security measures.
  • A Cloud-Native Future: Cloud adoption is on the rise, and Keycloak’s ability to run in cloud environments positions you perfectly for this shift. This allows easy scaling and deployment, keeping pace with your growing user base.


Keycloak’s pre-built functionalities and seamless integrations eliminate repetitive coding and streamline user management. It offers centralized control and fine-grained access control to manage internal employees or external website users. Furthermore, Keycloak positions you for the future of IAM with its commitment to open standards and modular design. So consider adopting Keycloak for a secure, sustainable, and efficient development journey.

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